History of Graphene
Scientists have theorized about graphene for years Unintentionally produced for centuries through pencils (Re-) Discovered in 2004 by Prof.
Geim and Novoselov Awarded Nobel Prize in Physics in 2010 for "groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene”
Graphene is a combination of the word graphite and the suffix -ene, referring to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
Type of Graphene
Graphene Flakes [GO]Top-down Method
Graphene Film [Single-layer/CVD]Bottom-up Method
Graphene Film [Multi-layer/CVD]Bottom-up Method
What is carbon?
Carbon (in Latin “carbo” or coal) is an atom (C)
4th most abundant element in the universe (after H - He - O)
Crucial to life - e.g. up to 20% of the human body is Carbon
Atomic Number = 6 (# of protons/neutrons/electrons)
Different forms of Carbon (= allotropes): Charcoal, Diamond,
Graphite, Graphene, Fullerenes, …
What is Graphene?
-Single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice
-Thickness of 1 graphene monolayer is ca. 0.3nm
-Strongest material ever tested; harder than diamond, e.g. 200x stronger and 6x lighter than steel
-Efficiently conducts heat and electricity and could one-day replace silicon in electronics (“Moore’s Law” bottleneck)
-Massive ongoing research; e.g. “Graphene Flagship”, EU’s largest research initiative with €1 billion budget
Graphene is a form of carbon allotrope consisting of planar sheets which are one atom thick carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb-shaped (hexagonal) lattice.
Graphene has many extraordinary properties. It is about 100~300 times stronger than steel with tensile stiffness ~1020 GPa. It is the best conductor of heat
at room temperature (thermal conductivity ~ 5300 W·m−1·K−1) and also the best conductor of electricity known (studies have shown electron mobility at values of more than
15,000 cm2·V−1·s−1) and it is optically transparent (with light absorption at πα ≈ 2.3% of white light or 97.7 % transmittance).
Because it is less than one atomic thick (0.33 nm), or about one million times thinner than a sheet of paper, it is a very light material weighing about 0.77 mg/m2 and has
an extremely high surface area (theoretical specific surface is of 2630 m2/g).
Scientists have theorized about graphene for many decades. It has likely been unknowingly produced in small quantities for centuries,
through the use of pencils and other similar applications of graphite.
It was originally observed in electron microscopes in 1962, but not studied further. The material was later re-discovered, isolated and characterized in 2004 by Andre Geim
and Konstantin Novoselov at the University of Manchester. In 2010, Andre Gim and Konstantin Novoselov later became the two recipients of the Nobel Prize
in Physics "for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene".
Since 2004, scientists all-over-the-world continue research on Graphene’s novel properties such as e.g. the bipolar transistor effect, magnetism, ballistic transport of charges
and large quantum oscillations in graphene, thus expanding the applicability of graphene materials.
The 2D Nano Material of the Future
7 Key Advantages of Graphene
Most Electrically Conductive
Most Thermally Conductive
Graphene will have disruptive impacts on many industriesMembranes: water filtration, water desalination Composites: super-light & super-strong materials Energy: high-capacity batteries for e.g. cars Biomedical: targeted drug delivery, nano-sensors Electronics: flexible displays, wearable electronics High-barrier composite films EMI/RFI shielding coating materials Anti-corrosion alloy coating materials Touch panel module OLED panel